The area is also called the Pacific Rim, a term which refers to the coastal areas of the countries round the Pacific.. About three quarters of the world's dormant volcanos and active volcanos are here. In the past 1,000 years, at least 10 eruptions produced lava flows and tephra cones from the rift zone that crosses the volcano from southwest to east and through Haleakalā Crater. [8], The other major outflow from the event reached the sea south of Kiholo Bay, destroying the village of Kaʻūpūlehu. [6][12], The 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake, with epicenter just to the north in Kiholo Bay near Māhukona, caused much damage in the area. [6][7] There are over 100 cinder and spatter cones arranged along these rift zones. [25] [12], Hualālai has been a home to native people since ancient times. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has divided the exposed lava flows and tephra erupted by Hualālai volcano during the last 112,000 years into 419 rock units of eight chronostratigraphic age groups. Huliheʻe Palace, where many of Hawaii's last kings spent their time, has been maintained as a museum since 1927. [6] The USGS is currently in the process of upgrading its aging monitoring and telemetry equipment, using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds. Hawaii Route 200 known as the Saddle Road, crosses the plateau north of Hualālai, where the Pohakuloa Training Area provides a remote training ground for the United States Army and United States Marine Corps. Volcano Watch is a weekly article and activity update written by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and colleagues. The 1700s were years of significant volcanic activity with six different vents erupting lava, two of which produced lava flows that reached the sea. [5], A major subfeature of Hualālai is Puʻu Waʻawaʻa, Hawaiian for "many-furrowed hill", a volcanic cone standing 372 m (1,220 ft) tall and measuring over 1.6 km (1 mi) in diameter. It is also dormant currently however it is the third most active volcano in Hawaii with it lasting erupting during 1800-1801 and expected to erupt every few hundred years. The relative unpreparedness of the residents in the area caused by the lull in activity would worsen the consequences of such an event. Mauna Kea, the highest volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, erupted most recently between about 6,000 and 4,500 years ago from at least seven separate summit-area vents, producing lava flows and cinder cones. Mauna Kea, the highest volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, erupted most recently between about 6,000 and 4,500 years ago from at least seven separate summit-area vents, producing lava flows and cinder cones. [12] The Ka'ūpūlehu flow is also known for the particularly large quantity of mafic and ultramafic xenoliths that came up with it. Although five vents were active at the time, only two produced flows that eventually reached the ocean. This caused $100,000 worth of damage to the Kona district ($1.2 million as of 2010), and two earthquakes with magnitudes of 5.5 and 6.5 were felt as far away as Honolulu. Many of the collapse craters in particular have vegetation, and a few even have respectably-sized "vertical forests" inside, including several eucalyptus tree groves. The Hawaiian Islands, presently atop of its hot spot, is believed to have been formed about 4.5 million years ago. Shield Volcano Definition . Plentiful lava flows from the 19th century provide unique niches for vegetative and soil growth in the region. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is responsible for monitoring six active volcanoes on the Islands of Hawai‘i and Maui. 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